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The Battery for Assessment of Plural Processing in Aphasia (Frequency) assesses the
ability of people with aphasia to produce plurals, and the effects of frequency on this ability. Some people with aphasia make errors in their use of the plural inflection, perhaps producing a singular (e.g. two horse) when a plural is appropriate or vice versa (e.g. one horses), or use alternative ways to indicate number (e.g. horse, two of them). This test battery examines whether the ability of a person with aphasia to correctly process plurals varies depending on the frequency of the target word. By examining plural processing across four different tasks, it enables identification not only of whether processing of regular plural inflection is intact or impaired, but also the level of impairment in the language system that is the source of this impairment.

The BAPPA-F consists of four tests: (A) Picture Naming, (B) Reading Aloud, (C) Repetition and (D) Word-Picture Verification. You can download pdf versions of each test by clicking on the buttons on the right of this page. You can also download a pdf that gives you further detail on the BAPPA-F including detail on test interpretation and background information about how the tests were developed (BAPPA-F Manual.pdf).


(A) The Picture Naming Test contains pictures of single objects (e.g. helmet) and multiple objects (e.g. helmets) that a person has to name. Poor performance in the Picture Naming Test can be due to different types of deficits: (i) a phonological word form level deficit, (ii) a phonological buffer/phoneme level deficit, (iii) an articulatory deficit, or (iv) a semantic or conceptual deficit.

(B) The Reading Aloud Test involves reading singular and plural words aloud.

(C) The Repetition Test involves listening and repeating singular and plural words. The reading and repetition tasks are used to help localise the level of impairment that leads to any problem with plurals in the naming task. If there is a problem with repetition, most likely a post-lexical or a more peripheral deficit is the origin of the impairment.

(D) The Word-Picture Verification Test involves matching written singular and plural words with pictures. If a person performs poorly on the Word-Picture Verification Test then this indicates that the participant suffers from impaired plural comprehension as a result of impaired orthographic or semantic/conceptual processes, and can help localise any impairment on the naming task. 

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