Welcome to TOWRE Australian norms

Australian norms for the TOWRE

The TOWRE (Test Of Word Reading Efficiency) is a popular tool for measuring word reading speed. The original test was developed and normed in the US by Torgesen, Wagner and Rashotte (1999).

Here we present approximate norms for Australian primary school children. The data for the Australian comparison data were collected in the second half of the school year. In order to get the most reliable comparison between a child’s performance and that of the norm group we recommend using the norms during the second half of the school year.

The PDF with Australian comparison data contains age-based norms and grade-based norms.  

Note: In 2012 a new version of the TOWRE (TOWRE-2) was released. The Australian comparison data was collected in 2010 for the 1999 version, and are meant to be used for the original test. A discussion of the differences between the original TOWRE and TOWRE-2 can also be found in Marinus, Kohnen & McArthur, Appendix 3 (see reference below).


Marinus, E., Kohnen, S., & McArthur, G. (2013). Australian comparison data for the test of word reading efficiency. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 18(2), 199-212.

Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1999). Test of word reading efficiency. Austin, TX: ProEd.


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